Naden Liquidus =LINK=
Both experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation were performed for the Mg-Sr-Zr system. Four decisive alloys were firstly selected and prepared using a powder metallurgy method to measure the isothermal section at 400 C via a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. No ternary compound has been observed for this ternary system. Four three-phase regions, (Mg) + (αZr) + Mg 17 Sr 2 , Mg 17 Sr 2 + (αZr) + Mg 38 Sr 9 , Mg 38 Sr 9 + (αZr) + Mg 23 Sr 6 , and Mg 23 Sr 6 + (αZr) + Mg 2 Sr, have been identified at 400 C. No appreciable ternary solubility has been detected in the binary Mg-Sr compounds. Phase transition temperatures of the Mg-Sr-Zr alloys were measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The thermodynamic calculations match well with the experimental data in the present work, indicating that no ternary thermodynamic parameters are needed for the thermodynamic description of this ternary system. In order to verify the reliability of the current thermodynamic calculations of the Mg-Sr-Zr system, eight as-cast alloys in the Mg-rich corner were also prepared. The calculated liquidus projection is consistent with the observed primary phase regions. The present thermodynamic calculations are reliable and can be used in the development of Mg alloys.
Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges
Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges.
Based on the thermodynamic calculations extrapolated from the corresponding binary sub-systems, four decisive alloys in the Fe-Mg-Mn system and three in the Fe-Mg-Ni system were selected and prepared using a powder metallurgy method to measure the isothermal sections at 500 C in both systems. The prepared samples were annealed at 500 C, and then subjected to X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as electron probe microanalysis. Taking into account the presently obtained experimental data and the experimental data available in the literature, thermodynamic modeling was performed for the above systems. It was found that a direct extrapolation from the corresponding three binary systems can well reproduce all the experimental data in the Fe-Mg-Mn system, while two thermodynamic parameters are needed in the Fe-Mg-Ni system to fit all the experimental data. The liquidus projections and reaction schemes for the Fe-Mg-Mn and Fe-Mg-Ni systems are also presented. (orig.)
The thermodynamic database for the Mg-Al-Ca-Sr quaternary system was constructed by combining the thermodynamic descriptions of the constituent binary systems. There are six binaries in the quaternary system: Al-Ca, Al-Mg, Al-Sr, Ca-Sr, Ca-Mg and Mg-Sr. Only two of them had been absent from the databases: Al-Ca and Ca-Sr. Therefore, they were investigated in detail to develop their thermodynamic descriptions. They were evaluated using Thermo-Calc, the software developed at The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. It is based on the CALPHAD approach. The modeling in CALPHAD approach relies on the Gibbs energy of individual phases. Therefore, the Gibbs energy functions for each phase in the binaries were defined in the binary databases. The Ca-Sr system was modeled by using random solution model. In modeling of the Al-Ca system, both random solution and associate models were applied to liquid phase. It was also demonstrated for the Al-Ca that the first-principles calculations provide reliable enthalpies of formation for stoichiometric compounds. The constructed quaternary database were used to calculate the liquidus projections of the ternary Mg-Al-Ca, Mg-Al-Sr, Mg-Ca-Sr and Al-Ca-Sr systems. Their primary crystallization fields and invariant reaction points were determined. Two Mg-based Mg-Al-Ca alloys were studied experimentally. The equilibrium phases in the alloys were determined after heat treatment. The present experimental results as well as the literature data were compared with the present thermodynamic calculations. The database was also utilized to understand the microstructures and phase relationships of the two quaternary alloys. Scheil simulations and equilibrium calculations were performed for the solidification process and compared with experimental observations.
Using the thermographic and X-ray phase analyses binary CdI 2 -PbI 2 , PI 2 -NaI, CdI 2 -NaI systems and a triple CdI 2 -PbI 2 -NaI system are investigated and their melting diagrams are plotted. A method of thermodynamic calculation has been proposed and tested of the shape of the eutectic lines for the system CdI 2 -PbI 2 -NaI, taking into account the non-ideality of the liquid phase. The method uses data obtained for the binary systems. The liquidus surface of the triple system has been constructed on the basis of the calculation. The results of the calculation of the triple eutectics are in good agreement with the experimental data
Sulfur released during the ascent and crystallization of hydrous and oxidized arc magmas is thought to play an essential role in the genesis of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits, such as porphyry Cu-Mo-Au and high-sulfidation epithermal Au deposits. If emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions, it may exert a significant short-term global impact on the Earth's climate due to the generation of sulfate aerosol. Therefore, it is critically important to understand how physical-chemical variables affect the efficiency of sulfur extraction from magmas. High pressure (P) -temperature (T) experiments were conducted to systematically address the effect P-T on the equilibrium partitioning of oxidized sulfur between silicate melts and magmatic volatiles. The confining P was varied between 30 and 480 MPa, whereas the temperature ranged between 920 and 1100 oC. The oxygen fugacity (fO2) was buffered using Re-ReO2 assemblage in all experiments ensuring that sulfur was dominantly present in 4+ and 6+ oxidation state. For the pressure series experiments, a phonolite and a basaltic andesite melt composition was used, because sulfur is thought to be dissolved dominantly as alkali sulfate species in the former and as CaSO4 species in the latter. The data show that the volatile/melt partition coefficients of oxidized sulfur (DSv/m) strongly increase with decreasing pressure for both melt compositions. For example, in the case of the basaltic andesite melt, DSv/m increases from 12.70.5 to 714 as P changes from 480 to 60 MPa. For the temperature series experiments, the basaltic andesite was replaced by a dacite melt to allow for a broader range of superliquidus temperatures within the reach of the experimental apparatus. The effect of temperature on DSv/m is more moderate than that of P. For the dacite melt, DSv/m dropped by a factor of 2 as temperature decreased from 1100 to 920 oC. The DSv/m values were combined with anhydrite solubility data and implemented in a
This field, petrographic, and geochemical study catalogues complicated magma mingling at the field to thin section scale, and models the emplacement of multiple crystal-rich pulses into a growing magma chamber. Modern theories present magma chambers as short-lived reservoirs that are continuously fed by intermittent magma pulses and suggest processes that occur within them can be highly dynamic. Differences in the rheology of two mingling magmas, largely affected by crystallinity, can result in varied textural features that can be preserved in igneous rocks. Field evidence of complex magma mingling is observed at Wild Cove, located along the northeast shoreline of Fogo Island, Newfoundland, an area interpreted to represent the roof/wall region of the Devonian Fogo Batholith. Fine-grained intermediate enclaves are contained in host rocks of similar composition and occur in round to amoeboid shapes. Dykes of similar composition are also observed near enclaves suggesting they were broken up into globules in localized areas. These provide evidence for a possible mechanism by which enclaves were formed as dykes passed through a more liquid-rich region of the magma chamber. The irregular but sharp nature of the boundaries between units suggest that all co-existed as "mushy" magmas with variable crystallinities reflecting a wide range in temperature between their respective liquidus and solidus. Textural evidence of complex mingling between mush units includes the intrusion of tonalite dykes into quartz diorite and granite mushes. The dykes were later pulled apart and subsequently back-intruded by liquid from the host mush (Figure). Observed magmatic tubes of intermediate magma cross-cutting through magma of near identical composition likely reflect compaction of the underlying mush after intrusion of new pulses of magma into the system. Petrographic examination of contacts between units reveals that few are chilled and medium to coarse grained boundaries are the norm. 041b061a72