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Parent teacher association

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Jack Davis
Jack Davis


Chronologically, the "back-flung"front door creates the first tableau of a youthful Miss Emily, assiduously guarded by her father. Miss Emily, a "slender figure in white, "typifies the vulnerable virgin, hovering in the background, subordinate and passive. The father, "a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip"(CS 123), is a menacing dark image assuming the dominant front position. His turned back suggests a disregard for her emotional welfare as he wards off potential danger -- or violation of her maidenhead -- with his horsewhip. The back-flung door invites suitors in, but only those who meet Grierson's standards. Unfortunately, those standards are unattainable -- "The Griersons held themselves a little too high for what they really were"(CS 123) -- and Miss Emily remains a spinster at age thirty.



Until the angel portrait in Section III, the picture placements are reversed chronologically, moving backward to the structural center of the story that returns Emily to her most innocent state. She is a girl again even though over thirty. Her father is no longer alive to drive off suitors. She doesn't need to protect the Grierson myth, for the money is gone and her poverty "humanizes"(CS 124) her. And even though Homer has professed that he is not the marrying type, he does return after the cousins leave. Why, then, does Emily choose to kill her only chance for physical and emotional intimacy? The whip is the final pictorial clue, and a very practical one. Her father held the horsewhip when she was a young woman; however, when she and Homer go buggy riding, Homer holds the whip, along with the reins. To marry Homer would again transfer control into the hands of a man, one whom she could not trust with her well-being any more than she could trust her father, for Homer liked men, drank with the younger men at the Elks' Club, and was not the marrying type (CS 126). Through the violence (whip) of murder, Emily figuratively takes over the reins of her life.

Achyranthes aspera (common name: prickly chaff flower,devil's horsewhip, Sanskrit: अपमर्ग apamarga) is a species of plant in the Amaranthaceae family. It is distributed throughout the tropical world. It can be found in many places growing as an introduced species and a common weed. It is an invasive species in some areas, including many Pacific Islands environments.

Lord Grenville must have been appalled that Temple had sought the indictment. Whatever his private feelings about the United States, the foreign secretary certainly did not want anything to exacerbate the already chilly relations between the two governments. Britain was in a desperate war with revolutionary France, and Grenville was trying to keep the United States neutral. A Senate hearing on an incident in which a British diplomat had horsewhipped one of its members was not what the foreign minister needed. Nevertheless, Grenville never mentioned the matter in his official letters to Temple nor to the new British minister to the United States Robert Liston.

Background: Horsewhip is a thong made from animal hide and is commonly used among African population to strike commonly, erring children as a form of corporal punishment to correct wrong doings especially at homes and in schools'. This practice is against International law (1989, Convention on the Rights of the child, UN) which sought to protect children from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation. Its use is associated with a myriad of vision threaten conditions including ruptured globe. Aim : The aim was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of eye injuries caused by horsewhip and recommend ways to reduce it. Materials and Methods : A 9 years retrospective study of horsewhip ocular trauma was carried out. The following information were extracted from patient's medical records: Sociodemographic record, circumstance of trauma, extent of eye injury, visual acuity (VA) at admission and at the time of discharge. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 18. Results: Horsewhip ocular injuries constituted 20 of a total number of 930 cases of ocular trauma seen during the study periods . There were 13 males and 7 females. Most patients were students 15 (75%). Left eye was mostly affected 11 (55%). Half of the injuries occurred at schools 10 (50%, 8 in Quranic and 2 in formal), followed by home 7 (35%). Cornea was the most affected part by the trauma 7 (35%). At the presentation to our hospital 11 (55%) had visual acuities of 6/18 or worse in the affected eye. The overall visual outcome of the patients as at the last hospital visit shows 50% attained a VA of 6/12 or better, and 50% had VA of 6/60 or worse. Conclusion: Horsewhip ocular trauma is an important cause of ocular morbidity, and the importance of ocular health education as a form of preventive measure is underscored.

Horsewhip [Figure 1] is a thong made from animal hide with different local names worldwide. In Nigeria, it is locally known as "Koboko" in Yoruba and Igbo languages and "Bulala" in Hausa language. In Africa it is commonly used by parents, guardians and teachers as a form of corporal punishment to correct wrong doings especially at home and schools (formal and Quranic schools). Horsewhip ocular trauma may results in anterior and posterior-segments eye complications just like any other blunt injury to the globe. During its use, horsewhip can mistakenly hit the eye of... 041b061a72


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