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Doug Rattmann, also nicknamed as simply the Rat Man, was a scientist at the Aperture Science Enrichment Center. Prior to the events of Portal while GLaDOS began flooding the entire facility with neurotoxin, Rattmann is the only known employee to have survived. A paranoid schizophrenic, he is dependent on anti-psychotic medication as a means of keeping him sane.
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Rattmann does not appear in-game in any form, instead leaving behind paintings and murals which can be found throughout the backstage of various testing chambers in Portal and the single-player campaign of Portal 2.
Following Chell's conflict with GLaDOS after her escape from the testing tracks, the Lab Rat comic details Rattmann's point of view after the events of Portal in which he follows the sound of the explosion and finds a route to the outside world after the destruction of GLaDOS. His joy is short-lived as he witnesses an unconscious Chell being dragged back into the facility by the Party Escort Bot. Feeling guilt, as it was his actions that resulted in her being the first test subject, he once again enters the facility and finds Chell has been put in long-term cryogenic relaxation. Finding out that Chell's Relaxation Chamber is offline due to the downfall of GLaDOS, the overall facility operator, he proceeds to save Chell's life by unplugging all other available chambers from their cryogenic supply and into hers. He is injured in the process when he is shot by Turrets that are still left in nearby test chambers. He then submits himself into Chell's cryogenic stasis bed found in the Relaxation Vault previously used in the events of Portal, and falls asleep in it.
During the events of the single-player campaign of Portal 2, Rattmann's fate is left unknown. Whether or not he is dead is left up to debate, as Chell's cryogenic stasis bed that she used before the events of Portal he took refuge in, had disappeared entirely. One piece of evidence for his death is the song called "Ghost of Rattman". Some speculate that Rattmann may have made it to the moon, as shown in a hidden picture encrypted into the game's audio file. You can find the audio file by bringing a radio into Rattmann's den in Portal 2 Chapter 2 Test Chamber 6.
Rattmann's graffiti work makes no appearances whatsoever during the game's Cooperative Testing Initiative. However, a Weighted Companion Cube can be spotted by Atlas and P-body in the last test of Course Four: Excursion Funnels. The cube is apparently attached to a Core Receptacle, indicating that it may in fact be as sentient as any other Cores in the series.
At some point in the events of the Perpetual Testing Initiative, in which the player takes role of stick figure Bendy - is shifted into a variety of alternate universes at the Enrichment Center as a means of still having Cave Johnson as ongoing CEO. There is a universe in which Rattmann is CEO of the Aperture company. Cave (now former junior claims representative of Aperture) hijacks the intercoms to yell out and warn everyone that Rattmann (the current CEO) is embezzling from the staffs' paychecks.
Ghost of Rattman is the 7th track on the Portal 2 soundtrack "Portal 2: Songs to Test By." It includes what is speculated to be Rattmann speaking to himself, his Companion Cube, or even Cave Johnson. The ramblings draw parallels with the Borealis as well as multiple events in the 2011 comic Lab Rat. You can access this recording in Den #7 in Portal 2, located in test chamber 17.
This could refer to two incidents, both described in Portal 2: Lab Rat.The first incident is the infamous Bring Your Daughter to Work Day. He's dead. Everyone, dead! could refer to the people killed by GLaDOS during this incident, with But she lives! referring to GLaDOS herself.However, these lines could alternatively be referring to the dead bodies in the cryo-chambers. As shown on page 17 of Portal 2: Lab Rat, all of the chambers were offline, however Rattmann was able to save Chell by resetting her life support and putting her in "the long sleep." This would also align with the next line I can touch it, referring to page 25, where Rattmann had to reach to push a button to save Chell.
Rattmann's name has been spelled both with one and two n's. However, because of Rattmann's username "drattmann" in the Portal ARG, it is believed that the correct spelling is with two n's. This is because his username would have been created by Rattmann himself, or automatically generated by Aperture Science from his personnel file. His name also appears with two n's in Portal: The Uncooperative Cake Acquisition Game.
Rattmann's name appears with a single n spelling once, on the Songs to Test By track "Ghost of Rattman." This diverges from the common double n spelling, which causes confusion when it comes to the correct spelling.
Aside from leaving paintings, murals and messages behind, Doug Rattmann also discovered a number of hidden rooms in Aperture Science. He adorned these rooms with messages and artwork and primarily used them as refuges in order to escape GLaDOS' scrutiny. The hidden rooms are present in both Portal and Portal 2, and are known as the Ratman's Dens. A total of 13 have been discovered, 6 in Portal and 7 in Portal 2.
Packed full of micro-RNA and other short-fragmented RNA sequences that are crucial for cell-to-cell communication, exosomes have recently become a critical factor in pathology and disease progression. Although seemingly difficult to study due to their low abundance, small size and delicateness, exosomes are present all throughout the human body, purified from various sample types such as plasma, serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and saliva. In this blog, we present to you 3 commonly encountered issues surrounding exosome purification, along with our suggestions and solutions for these uncertainties. \r\n\r\n\r\nLow Yield\r\nDue to exosomes existing in low abundance within liquid biopsy, the purification of these extracellular vesicles can be quite difficult. Via our proprietary isolation technology, Norgen is able to purify the highest quantities of exosomes from samples for downstream applications, such as Western blot, Nanosight (NTA), Electron Microscopy, and RNA purification, without impacting the integrity or contents of the exosomes. \r\nThis is evidenced by a 2020 paper by Reale, et al. where they demonstrated that Norgen\u2019s exosome purification kit obtained superior amounts of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and further confirmed that these EVs were indeed exosomes by correlating this finding with levels of exosome specific protein TSG101. This is further supported by the co-founder and chief scientist at Cancer Treatment Options and Management Inc. (CTOAM), Alex Rolland, who was having issues with isolation quantity before switching to Norgen\u2019s product; \u201cRecently Norgen has worked with us to purify blood-based exosomes and exosomal-RNA at a high enough concentration to allow RNA seq based expression testing\u2026 we are able to obtain expression of 20,000 genes from tumour associated exosomes from cancer patients both in remission and experiencing recurrence.\u201d commented Alex Rolland from CTOAM. \r\n\r\n\r\nContamination\r\nExosomes often co-purify with other extracellular vesicles and related structures as they are similar in size. This contaminates the exosome purity and can affect downstream applications as well as confidence in the results. Many popular methods of exosome purification, such as ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and filtration, are size-based and therefore suffer from such contamination. Particularly, the industry-standard ultracentrifugation often results in a single pellet containing everything, including small vesicles, total RNA and small RNA, tediously leading to contaminated outcomes. Similar issues also occur with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, which is found in many popular commercial kits. Norgen\u2019s Exosome Purification Kits avoid ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation via our proprietary\u00a0isolation technology that targets the charge of exosomal surface proteins.\r\n\r\nOne of the cleanest methods of exosome purification is antibody purification, as it targets exosome-specific surface proteins. A recent comparison of microRNA diversity in size-based separation of exosomes (Ultracentrifugation, ExoQuick, and exoEasy vs surface protein-based isolation of exosomes (Miltenyi Antibodies and Norgen)) demonstrated by heat map shows that Norgen\u2019s proprietary SiC resin matrix yield has the highest resemblance to that of the Miltenyi antibody method. This finding further supports the claim of high purity with Norgen\u2019s method while being significantly cheaper than antibody purification methods.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nLoss of Exosome Integrity\r\nExosomes are quite fragile and therefore are liable to damage or alteration with harsh mechanics or chemistry found in many commercial exosome isolation kits, which can negatively impact downstream applications such as NGS. Norgen avoids this through our proprietary pH-based isolation technology, which alters the isoelectric charges on the membrane-embedded proteins of the exosomes. This method is much gentler with the samples and causes less damage or alteration to the exosomes, thereby leading to greater yield and purity. Norgen Biotek allows for efficient and repeatable exosome purification, which can focus on isolating intact exosomes, exosomal RNA or a combination of both from a variety of samples such as plasma\/serum or urine. \r\n\r\nThe field of exosome research is an exciting and developing field filled with numerous applications to human health and disease. While this field holds much promise, there are still many obstacles when it comes to working with exosomes that need to be addressed as the field grows.\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n \r\n\tReale, A., Carmichael, I., Xu, R., Mithraprabhu, S., Khong, T., Chen, M., ... & Spencer, A. (2021). Human myeloma cell\u2010and plasma\u2010derived extracellular vesicles contribute to functional regulation of stromal cells.\u00a0Proteomics,\u00a021(13-14), 2000119.\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\tRolland, A. (2023) Why I use NORGEN. Cancer Treatment Options and Management (CTOAM). \r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/230316\/banner_small.jpg);\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n","1"],["2023-02-10 00:00:00","5 Upcoming Liquid Biopsy Trends in 2023","180","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg_4.jpg","2257","9574","With robot servers, the metaverse, and automation, it is clear that we\u2019ve officially entered the era of advanced technology. This is also true for the life sciences industry. Liquid biopsy has significantly improved over the past couple of years as a minimally invasive tool for diagnostic, prognostic, monitoring and treatment purposes. In 2023, liquid biopsy is often preferred over traditional tissue biopsy due to its high level of accuracy and ease of collection. Tissue biopsies, on the other hand, are invasive and sometimes risky to collect, and may lack accuracy due to sample heterogeneity. Therefore, researchers and clinicians have shifted to samples such as plasma, serum, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, and more. With this, we have seen major trends emerge in the scientific industry such as the use of saliva for COVID-19 testing or the use of cf-RNA from urine for prostate cancer screening. \r\n\r\nThe future of liquid biopsy is highlighted below with five upcoming trends to look forward to in 2023, including:\r\n\r\nNon-Invasive Prenatal Testing\r\nMass Population Screening and Point-of-Care\r\nRNA Therapeutics and Treatment Monitoring\r\nTopical Use for Skincare\r\nPrecision Oncology\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n1. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing \r\nNon-invasive prenatal testing, also known as NIPT, is a new minimally invasive screening method to detect whether a fetus has any genetic abnormalities through a simple blood draw from the mother. From maternal plasma, researchers or clinicians are able to isolate fetal DNA that has been expelled from the placenta into the maternal bloodstream. With the isolated DNA, they are able to detect any trisomies, the most common being Down Syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18) or Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13).1\r\n\r\nBefore NIPT, the gold standard for trisomy testing was amniocentesis, which is a highly invasive procedure that involves inserting a needle into the amniotic sac to collect amniotic fluid. Although accurate, this test cannot be performed before the 14-week mark as there is a risk of miscarriage.2 NIPT is not yet a replacement for amniocentesis and is only considered a pre-screening tool, however, with the emergence of new technologies to isolate and detect nucleic acids, NIPT could be the future for prenatal testing. \r\n\r\nFor more information, Norgen has created a seamless workflow for NIPT utilizing the plasma\/serum sample type.\r\n\r\n\r\n2. Mass Population Screening and Point-of-Care \r\n\r\nMass population screening is an old practice; in the 1980s, mass screening for breast cancer using mammography was implemented for early detection in hopes to reduce breast cancer mortality rates.3 However, as medical technology using liquid biopsy evolves, mass population screening has improved. This includes recent advancements in sample preservation, making mass population screening using point-of-care collection effortless. \r\n\r\nIn a study done by Martyn Webb and colleagues using Norgen\u2019s Urine Preservation Tubes, it was determined that using the preservative for at-home urine collection resulted in the same quality of RNA compared to samples collected in the clinic and immediately processed.4 They found that with this at-home collection protocol, there was potential to perform large-scale prostate cancer studies while saving money, time and discomfort for the patient.4\r\n\r\nAs more and more techniques using liquid biopsies for detection are discovered, we could be seeing an increase in mass population screening for early diagnosis and in some cases, like HIV and HCV, a reduction in transmission and infection rates. \r\n\r\n\r\n3. RNA Therapeutics and Treatment Monitoring\r\n\r\nWe\u2019ve touched base on diagnosis and mass screening, but did you know liquid biopsies have the potential to be used in pharmaceutical industries?\r\n\r\nThe next liquid biopsy trend that we\u2019ll be seeing in 2023 is the use of liquid biopsy for therapeutics and treatment monitoring, whether it\u2019s cancer treatment or even potential therapies for other disorders like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. \r\n\r\nIn a study done by Masashi Fukuoka and his team using Norgen\u2019s Plasma\/Serum Circulating and Exosomal RNA Purification Mini Kit (Slurry Format), they found that there is a relation between aging and the miRNA in a patient's blood circulation, with the most notable being miR-199-3p, which plays a role in myogenic differentiation and muscle generation. Upon further studies, they determined that the administration of miR199#4 (a mimic of miR-199-3p) not only delayed the muscle loss due to aging in mice, but also increased the muscle strength when administered to MDX mice (mice mimicking Duchenne muscular dystrophy).5 With further studies, miR199#4 has the potential of becoming an RNA therapeutic for patients with muscle conditions and other age-related diseases.\r\n\r\nWith liquid biopsy potentially playing a key role in therapeutics, researchers will emphasize this treatment method as the field progresses.\r\n\r\n\r\n4. Topical Use For Skincare\r\nSkincare is one of the leading industries in the world and according to Statista, it is estimated that it will generate roughly $164 billion in 2023.6 The next trend we'll be discussing is the use of liquid biopsies and their contents for topical treatments. Yes\u2026 liquid biopsies for skin care. \r\n\r\nApart from the cell-free circulating nucleic acids, liquid biopsies contain small circulating extracellular vesicles called exosomes. These vesicles contain cargo such as miRNA, fragmented mRNA and proteins. As they are in charge of cell-to-cell communication, exosomes have mostly been used to study disease, however, recent studies have shown their potential for wound treatment and cosmetics. \r\n\r\nAccording to Yang et al., the diverse cargo in exosomes makes it possible to have more than one therapeutic effect when it comes to skincare. For topical use, exosomes have the potential to enhance wound healing and provide an anti-aging effect as they increase angiogenic ability and collagen synthesis, as well as the potential to act as treatments for skin conditions like psoriasis due to the anti-inflammatory properties.7\r\n\r\nCould exosomes be the new miracle cure for younger and healthier looking skin? \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n5. Precision Oncology (patient-to-patient specific-includes treatment plans, prognosis and monitoring) \r\n\r\nOncological applications of liquid biopsies have become an attractive alternative for researchers. While cancer research is not relatively new, precision oncology is, only being introduced in the last few decades. The future of cancer research is bright in 2023 as streamlined and simplified liquid biopsy is accelerating and qualitatively improving oncology. \r\n\r\nPrecision oncology is the patient-specific molecular profiling of tumour nucleic acids for monitoring and treatment purposes. This new technique has recently been implemented by a team at Cancer Treatment Options and Management Inc (CTOAM). Using Norgen\u2019s plasma\/serum workflow, CTOAM has utilized plasma as a liquid biopsy sample type for identifying cancer in undiagnosed patients, monitoring the efficiency of cancer treatment, and identifying patients in remission or with early recurrence. For this purpose, CTOAM has created 100\u2019s of custom TaqMan probes that are used to monitor cancer patients.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nTo learn more about CTOAM and their work with precision oncology, watch our on-demand MasterClass, Enhancing Precision Medicine with Liquid Biopsy, featuring the Director of Scientific Research and Co-Founder of CTOAM, Alexander Rolland.\r\n\r\nWatch Now\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n \r\n\tBirko S, Ravitsky V, Dupras C, et al. The value of non-invasive prenatal testing: Preferences of Canadian pregnant women, their partners, and health professionals regarding NIPT use and access.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019;19(1)\r\n\tdoi:10.1186\/s12884-018-2153-y\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\tAmniocentesis. Mayo Clinic.\r\n https:\/\/www.mayoclinic.org\/tests-procedures\/amniocentesis\/about\/pac-20392914#::text=Miscarriage.,Needle%20injury. Published October 7, 2022. Accessed February 1, 2023.\r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tKlabunde CN, Ballard-Barbash R. Evaluating population-based screening mammography programs internationally. Seminars in Breast Disease2007;10(2):102-107.\r\n\tdoi:10.1053\/j.sembd.2007.09.007\r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tWebb M, Manley K, Olivan M, et al. Methodology for the at-home collection of urine samples for prostate cancer detection.BioTechniques2020;68(2):65-71 doi:10.2144\/btn-2019-0092 \r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tFukuoka M, Fujita H, Numao K, et al. Mir-199-3p enhances muscle regenerati